The emergence of globalisation and digitalisation has altered the labour market landscape between countries. Superfast development of information and communication technology (ICT) has even revolutionised employment. This revolution is gradually eliminating some jobs. Machines are replacing human workers. On the other hand, however, the demand for workers with ICT skills has increased significantly.
The latest research from Bank Indonesia provides evidence for this. Conducted by Deniey A. Purwanto et al. (2021) from the Faculty of Economics and Management, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB) and funded by the central bank under the Bank Indonesia Research Grant (RGBI).

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Online Shopping: Revealing the Secrets Behind Producers’ Price Tags
Research . 29 April 2024 . Hits: 59

The world of online shopping has become ubiquitous. Have you ever wondered, however, how the pricing mechanism for goods is determined for online stores? A study conducted by Fiskara Indawan, Aryo Sasongko, and Dian Rahmawati reveals the inside secrets of...

How do Corporate Sustainability and the Pandemic Affect Cash Holdings in Muslim Countries?
Research . 22 Agustus 2023 . Hits: 2750

​By Danny HermawanThis journal explores corporate sustainability in the environmental, social and government sector, particularly in terms of influencing the cash holdings of non-financial companies in Muslim countries from 2003 to 2021.  Through pan...

Central Bank Independence and Price Stability Under Alternative Political Regimes: Global Evidence
Research . 15 Agustus 2023 . Hits: 176

​By Danny HermawanAn independent central bank plays a crucial role in achieving price stability as the overarching goal of monetary policy.  Research indicates that central banks free from political pressure have higher capacity in terms of implement...

A Relationship Between Digital Services Trade Barriers and Economic Growth
Research . 8 Agustus 2023 . Hits: 162

​By Danny HermawanThis journal seeks to provide empirical evidence regarding the significance and correlation between trade barriers to digital services and economic growth. Despite existing studies on the effect of trade barriers on international trade, ...

Urgent need to Amend Indonesian Currency Laws to Face the Digital Era
Research . 1 Agustus 2023 . Hits: 258

​By Danny HermawanThis journal discusses Indonesia's Currency Act (No. 7) of 2011.  Information technology has developed so rapidly over the past several years that we must reassess whether this law is still relevant now and moving forward.  Tec...

BI-Epsilon is a blog containing a nontechnical summary of research papers conducted at Bank Indonesia. This page displays the most recent research conducted at the central bank of Indonesia on economic, monetary policy and financial market, macroprudential and financial system, and payment systems dan digitalizations. Also, issues on leadership and other relevant soft skills.

The readers who are interested in the files of working papers of the research may contact us through email to BICARA (email address provided below). Please provide a subject [BI-Epsilon​] on your email.

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  • Dr. Safari Kasiyanto
  • Dr. Danny Hermawan
  • Yenita Lisna

Contact Us:

Research Specialist – Bank Indonesia Research Center
Building D Floor 10th, Budi Kemuliaan Street, Jakarta 10350
Contact Center Bank Indonesia (BICARA 131)
Phone 1500131, email:

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